Combustion generally means the oxidation of a material with oxygen while forming flames. If the material is not converted completely, emissions are generated. If the engine runs on fossil fuels, these are unburnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and particles, which are carried into the environment as immissions. In order to minimise these effects, the planning group is researching how the combustion itself can be as clean as possible, as well as investigating the aftertreatment of exhaust gases with oxidation catalysts, particulate filters and SCR catalysts that reduce nitrogen oxides.
The initial starting point of engineering work is always preventing the formation of exhaust pollutants even during the combustion process. Exhaust gas aftertreatment systems are then only used if this proves unsuccessful. Due to ever more stringent exhaust regulations, the FVV researchers are pursuing both paths simultaneously.
Collaborative research is especially important here, as there are complex interrelationships between the two approaches. Nitrogen oxides are an example of this: the hotter and therefore more effective the combustion is, the more nitrogen molecules react with the atmospheric oxygen. Engine developers can counteract this by recirculating part of the exhaust gas to the combustion chamber to lower the combustion temperature. Because the exhaust gas is removed from the catalyst, however, residual materials such as particles or unburnt hydrocarbons can cause deposits in the radiator. In a range of research projects, the planning group is investigating the solution to problems such as this, for example through an optimised flow velocity of the exhaust gas.
Long-term reliability and high conversion rates are major criteria for engine exhaust aftertreatment with selective catalytic reduction by a Urea-water Solution. Unfavorable operating conditions may lead to the formation of solid deposits which degrade the system efficiency. Within the framework of the FVV project no. 1262, at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and the Vienna University of Technology (TUW), fundamental experimental and numerical investigations on deposit for mation and decomposition were carried out.Read more
Deposits on components of the Exhaust Aftertreatment (EAT) are often only detected after the failure of the respective component. Within the FVV project EAT Clogging (FVV project no. 1271), the Technical University of Braunschweig investigated which parameters have an impact on deposit formation and in which stages this takes place. The investigations include dynamic endurance runs and stationary tests.Read more
Exhaust gas from modern combustion engines is cleaner than ever before. Current projects of the Research Association for Combustion Engines (FVV) show that exhaust emissions can be reduced even further, especially in real operation. At the same time, electrification and the introduction of alternative fuels impose new requirements to exhaust gas aftertreatment.Read more
rojects of Planning Group 6 »Emissions & Immissions«
Identify technical solutions to achieve powertrains with Zero Impact Tailpipe Emissions un-der consideration of a 2030+ legislative vehicle and air pollutant scenarioTHEMIS
Risk mitigation of dramatic poisoning of SCR catalysts and sensors caused by upcoming marine hybrid fuels, Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel Oil (ULSFO)THEMIS
Provide future framework (chemical/thermohydraulic) for the design of prospective emission control systems in drivetrains for medium & heavy-duty trucks and nonroad machinery in 2030+THEMIS
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